About Mahanirvani Peetha Sarvajnapeetha
Mahanirvani Peetha Sarvajnapeetha is the oldest apex body of Hinduism – Sanatana Hindu Dharma originating from the Kailaasa Paramparagatha (tradition). From its original founder Bhagavān Śrī Paramaśiva to Kapila, Kriśna, Śankara and currently The Supreme Pontiff of Hinduism Bhagavān Śrī Nithyananda Paramaśivam, the history of the Mahanirvani Peetha Sarvajnapeetha represents authentic Hinduism.
Akhāḍās (also called Akharas) form the core body of the Hindu tradition. They are the oldest and largest Apex body of Hinduism. As of now at least 1 million dedicated Sādhus (saints) live under the Akhada Parishad, which is the apex council body of Hinduism with a democratic selection structure of its spiritual leaders, where all the fourteen Akhadas are members.
14 Akhāḍās are accepted widely as mainstream Akhāḍās, but there are many minor Akhāḍās affiliated to these, which function as their sister organizations or subsidiaries, carrying the ideological connection yet having their independent identity.
Allahabad or Prayag was the spiritual headquarters of the MahaNirvani Peetha where Sri Kapila Mahāmuni’s Māhā Jīvasamādhi (final enlightened resting place) is located. Haridwar is the current spiritual headquarters.
Mahanirvani Peetha’s leader The SPH Bhagavan Sri Nithyananda Paramashivam is giving a superconscious breakthrough to humanity, which is physically demonstrable through various power manifestations, scientifically measurable and stands the scrutiny of rational logic in hundreds and thousands of human beings around the globe.
- To revive and re-establish the VedaAgamas as a living Applied Science, giving the superconscious breakthrough that humanity is long waiting for in its evolutionary path.
- To pioneer a divine evolution, awakening human beings to their extraordinary powers (shaktis) and powerful cognitions (from higher states of Consciousness), building the next level frequency of human body, mind, internal organs and intra organs (such as Third Eye).
- To empower humanity to manifest Superconscious powers at individual, societal and global levels.
- To re-create a Conscious world where the global issues at the climatic, economic, social, health and 2 humanitarian levels, cease to exist from their very root; turning the problems of poverty, hunger, violence, discrimination into powerful living through the experience of Oneness.
The Original Akhada Structure
Kailaasa established by Paramashiva
Daksha, Son of Lord Brahma was called Daksha Prajapati as he functioned as the President of humanity during his times. He delivered the Daksha Smṛti – The Do’s and Dont’s – for Humanity. He organised a massive Yaga (sacrificial fire) for which he deliberately avoided calling his daughter Sati and Her Divine Consort Paramaśiva Himself. When Sati, pulled by parental bonding, went by herself to the Yaga, Daksha further insulted her in front of the entire gathering. Sati unable to withstand the insult of her own father, self-immolated herself in the sacrificial fire. News reached Paramaśiva, who invoked Vīrabhadra to slay Daksha’s head.
A portrayal of the incident of Sati’s insult and self-immolation at her father Daksha’s court.
Daksha fell low in the eyes of all after this incident. The Sapta Rishis (seven enlightened beings who are revered as patriarchs of Hinduism from yore) refused to henceforth follow Daksha Smṛti as they saw that Daksha was no more integrated to Paramaśiva, (Primordial Hindu Divinity). They requested Paramaśiva to reveal the guidelines yet again to them so they can follow. The sacred spot where Paramaśiva revealed the Agamas to them, is the Daksheshwar temple of Mayapur in Haridwar, where the Mahanirvani Peetha is headquartered. Even from during the times of Daksha, this temple was the headquarters of the Peetha.
After revealing the Agamas, Paramaśiva appointed Sage Kapila as the Head of the Mahanirvani Peetha, thus establishing the enlightenment ecosystem – Kailaasa Paramparagatha Mahanirvani Peetha Sarvajnapeetham.
Thus, Paramaśiva, the ultimate Divinity, having the Supreme Sovereignty of his cosmic kingdom, institutionalized the constitution, administration and protection for the enlightenment ecosystem on the planet by establishing the ‘Akhāḍās’ (traditions within Hinduism) with His direct disciples and descendants called the Paramaśiva Gaṇas and warrior ascetics (Nāgās) from Varanasi, the most ancient living city of earth. Under His divine ordainment, the enlightenment ecosystem with spiritual, religious, historical, political, economic and social legitimacy was formally established.
One of the main responsibilities of the Akhāḍās is teaching and transmitting the great teachings of Shāstras (revealed scriptures from Paramaśiva). Thus the ascetic monks (Nāgās) are called Shāstradharis (Shāstra – the scriptures; dharis – bearers) in Sanskrit. They also use Śastra (weapons) to protect the sacred traditions from external negative forces. Wielding of both Śāstra and Śastra – knowledge of scriptures and weapon – within the scope of the Dharma (Cosmic Law) is the main responsibility of the Akhāḍās.
Sectarian Structure of the Sadhus
(ORTHODOX SHAIVA SAMPRADAYAS – Shaiva Traditions)
Dashnami Sanyasis are broadly divided into two sections namely, Astra Dharis (weapon-holders) and Shaastra dharis (scripture holders). Astra Dharis are ascetic warriors and Shaastra dharis are learned ascetics.
Shankaracharya, the reviver saint of the Dashnami Order, realised that unless there is a warrior class of ascetics who fiercely protect it, the Order re-established by him cannot last long. Similarly, Hinduism had undergone extreme persecution where its scriptures, palm leaf manuscripts, books and such sources of knowledge were stolen, burnt, destroyed and maliciously misinterpreted. There was now a need for the Sanyasis of the country to physically protect against invasions, as well as protect the knowledge and ancient heritage of Hinduism itself. So, he recruited warrior and scholarly Sanyasis to form the ten orders of Sanyasis who came to be known as Dashnami Sanyasis.
Dashnami Naga Sanyasis in particular were imparted military training, as well as expected to be highly knowledgeable in the Hindu scriptures.
A short account of the original Dashnami Akharas is given below:
- Awahan Akhara: It was revived in 546 A.D. The tutelary deity is Gajanan Dattatreya. The head office of this Akhara is situated at Kashi (Varanasi) and branches are at Haridwar and Prayagraj.
- Atal Akhara: It was revived in 646 A.D. in Gondwana with Ganesh (Paramasiva’s own son) as its tutelary deity. This Akhara has its branches in Haridwar, Ujjain and Baroda, and its head office at Kashi (Varanasi).
- Mahanirvani Akhara: It was founded at Jharkand (Vaidyanath Dham) in 748 A.D. with Kapil Muni as its tutelary deity. This Akhara has its head office at Haridwar and branches at Kankhal, Kashi, Nasik and Ujjain.
- Anand Akhara: This Akhara was revived in 855 A.D. with Surya Deva (Sun God) as its tutelary deity. The Atal, Anand and Awahan Akharas are affiliated to Nirvani, Juna and Niranjani Akharas respectively.
- Niranjani Akhara: It was revived at Kachcha Mandavi in 903 AD. with its head-office at Prayag and branches at Ujjain and Udaipur. The tutelary deity of this Akhara is Kartikeya (or Subramanya – Parasiva’s own son). It is the protective army of Kartikeya that turned into the Niranjani Akhara of Sadhus.
- Juna or Bhairo: It was revived in 1145 A.D. at Kama Prayag with Rudravatar Dattatreya as its special deity. Main centres of this Akhara are situated at Kashi, Prayag, Hardwar and Ujjain.
- Nirvani Akhara: Nirvani and Niranjani akhada are considered as the leading akhadas from the point of view of the number of members and movable property.Only advanced aspirants are initiated into these Akharas who have already received preliminary instructions from the Guru.
Shankaracharya also organized the Dashnami order, which includes the following ten categories of Sanyasis. (1) Giri (hill) meaning living in the hills (2) Puri (City) meaning living in the city (3) Bharati (goddess of learning) meaning to be established in learning (4) Vana (Wood) meaning living in the woods (5) Parvata (Mountain) meaning living in the mountains (6) Aranya (forest) meaning living in the forest (7) Sagara (ocean) meaning living by the ocean (8) Tirtha (Pilgrimage) meaning travelling, visiting holy shrines and enriching people (9) Ashrama (hermitage) meaning living in a hermitage (10) Saraswati (symbol of knowledge) meaning eing blessed by Goddess Saraswati and therefore well established in the ocean of knowledge.
Shankaracharya also established four big monastic centres namely Jyotir Math. Shringeri Math, Govardhan Math and Dwaraka or Sharda Math in North, South, East and West respectively and installed his disciples there to propagate his religious message to the world.
The four great Mathas of the Dashnami order, have in the course of centuries come to adopt certain definite rules of affiliation and organisation. A Sanyasi must first of all enrol himself in a Marhi (recruiting centre). A Math can take members belonging to one Marhi only but all the fifty-two Marhis can become the members of Akharas.
The Dashnami Sanyasis are further divided into two broad sections namely Dandadharis (staff holders) and Paramahamsas (not holding a staff). Out of the ten sub-sects of the Dashnami Order, Sanyasis of only three sub-sects that is, Tirtha, Ashram and Saraswati, hold a staff and the rest called Paramahamsas do not hold a staff. The three Dandi sub-sects initiate only Brahmanas as ascetic disciples but in the rest, persons from Kshatriya (warrior caste) and Vaisya (merchant community) Varnas (castes) may also be initiated.
Picture: Dandi Sanyasi, a Hindu ascetic, in Eastern Bengal in the 1860s.
Dashnami ascetics are graded according to their spiritual attainment into four categories as follows:
- Kutichaka: He is an ascetic who has renounced the world and lives in a hut engaged in contemplation and worship. He subsists on alms given to him by others.
- Bahudaka: Such ascetics collect alms in kind but never in cash.
- Hansa: Such ascetics are well-versed in Vedanta (Scriptural knowledge) and pursue the aim of attaining complete knowledge of the Supreme Being.
- Paramahamsa: Such ascetics represent the stage of highest spiritual evolution.